Scope and Delivery of Policy
This Policy is designed to protect Apprentices who fall within the safeguarding remit. As part of the policy we will ensure that staff are trained to understand the policy and to ensured safeguarding is always at the forefront of their thoughts. The major part of the training for this policy will be for staff to be aware a learner can become vulnerable at any time so they need to be alert at all times to risks and changes in their learners. As part of the Policy role out all staff meetings and staff review meetings will be given an safeguarding agenda item to ensure the policy is embedded and discussed at all levels to ensure issues are recorded, investigated and reported to make sure our learners are kept safe at all times. We will also ensure that all learners are trained to understand what safeguarding means so they can protect themselves and their peers where needed.
Areas of Safeguarding
The key guidance on safeguarding for Apprentices is contained within ‘Keeping Children Safe in Education’ (2016) and the Ofsted guidance ‘Inspecting safeguarding in early years, education and skills settings’ (2016). A number of safeguarding issues are directly highlighted or implied within the text of these guidance documents. These areas of safeguarding have been separated into issues that are emerging or high risk issues (part 1); those related to the students as an individual (part 2); other safeguarding issues affecting students (part 3); and those related to the running of Call of the Wild (part 4).
Within this document:
‘Safeguarding’ is defined in the Children Act 2004 as protection from maltreatment; preventing impairment of health and development; ensuring that young people grow up with the provision of safe and effective care; and working in a way that gives the best life chances and transition to adulthood. Our safeguarding practice applies to every young person.
The term Staff applies to all those working for or on behalf of Call of the Wild, full time or part time, in either a paid or voluntary capacity.
Child refers to all young people who have not yet reached their 18th birthday. On the whole, this will apply to students of Call of the Wild; however the policy will extend to young people visiting Call of the Wild and students from other establishments
Parent refers to birth parents and other adults in a parenting role for example adoptive parents, guardians, step parents and foster carers.
The designated safeguarding lead for Call of the Wild is: Mark Soanes
The deputy safeguarding leads are:
• James Martin (Head of Children Services)
• Anne Tanner (Delivery Team)
Part 1 – High risk and emerging safeguarding issues Preventing Radicalisation and Extremism
The prevent duty requires that all staff are aware of the signs that a young person may be vulnerable to radicalisation. Risks will be considered for political; environmental; animal rights; or faith based extremism that may lead to a young person becoming radicalised. All staff of Call of the Wild will receive awareness training in order that they can identify the signs of young people being radicalised.
As part of the preventative process resilience to radicalisation will be built through the promotion of fundamental British values through the curriculum.
Any young person who is considered vulnerable to radicalisation will be referred by the DSL to the relevant children’s social care department, where the concerns will be considered in the MASH process. If the police prevent officer considers the information to be indicating a level of risk a “channel panel” will be convened and Call of the Wild will attend and support this process.
Gender based violence / Violence against women and girls
Within the context of this policy the following sections address specific issues of violence against women and girls; Female genital mutilation, forced marriage, honour based violence and teenage relationship abuse.
Female Genital Mutilation (FGM)
FGM comprises all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. It has no health benefits and harms girls and women in many ways. It involves removing and damaging healthy and normal female genital tissue, and hence interferes with the natural function of girls’ and women’s bodies.
The procedure may be carried out when the girl is newborn, during childhood or adolescence, just before marriage or during the first pregnancy. However, the majority of cases of FGM are thought to take place between the ages of 5 and 8 and therefore girls within that age bracket are at a higher risk. FGM is illegal in the UK.
On the 31 October 2015, it became mandatory for teachers to report known cases of FGM to the police. In these situations, the DSL will be informed that a member of teaching staff has called the police to report suspicion that FGM has happened. At no time will staff examine students to confirm this.
For cases where it is believed that a girl may be vulnerable to FGM or there is a concern that she may be about to be genitally mutilated, staff will inform the DSL who will report it as with any other child protection concern.
In the case of young people: ‘a forced marriage is a marriage in which one or both spouses cannot consent to the marriage and duress is involved. Duress can include physical, psychological, financial, sexual and emotional pressure.’ In some developing countries 11% of girls are married before the age of 15. One in 3 victims of forced marriage in the U.K. is under 18.
It is important that all members of staff recognise the presenting symptoms, how to respond if there are concerns and where to seek advice. Advice and help can be obtained nationally through the Forced Marriage Unit and locally through the local police safeguarding team or children’s social care.
Policies and practices in Call of the Wild reflect the fact that, while all members of staff, including teachers, have important responsibilities with regard to students who may be at risk of forced marriage, teachers and College leaders should not undertake roles in this regard that are most appropriately discharged by other children’s services professionals such as police officers or social workers.
Characteristics that may indicate forced marriage. While individual cases of forced marriage, and attempted forced marriage, are often very particular, they are likely to share a number of common and important characteristics, including:
• an extended absence from college
• a drop in performance or sudden signs of low motivation
• excessive parental restriction and control of movements
• a history of siblings leaving education to marry early
• poor performance, parental control of income and students being allowed only
limited career choices
• evidence of self-harm, treatment for depression, attempted suicide, social
isolation, eating disorders or substance abuse
• evidence of family disputes/conflict, domestic violence/abuse or running away
On their own, these characteristics may not indicate forced marriage. However, it is important to be satisfied that, where these behaviours occur, they are not linked to forced marriage. It is also important to avoid making assumptions about an individual student’s circumstances or act on the basis of stereotyping. For example, an extended holiday may be taken for entirely legitimate reasons and may not necessarily represent a pretext for forced marriage.
Honour Based Violence
Honour based violence is a violent crime or incident which may have been committed to protect or defend the ‘honour’ of a family or community.
It is often linked to family or community members who believe someone has brought shame to their family or community by doing something that is not in keeping with their expectations. For example, honour based violence might be committed against people who:
• become involved with a boyfriend or girlfriend from a different culture or religion
• want to get out of an arranged marriage
• want to get out of a forced marriage
• wear clothes or take part in activities that might not be considered traditional
within a particular culture
• convert to a different faith from the family
Women and girls are the most common victims of honour based violence however it can also affect men and boys. Crimes of ‘honour’ do not always include violence. Crimes committed in the name of ‘honour’ might include:
• domestic abuse
• threats of violence
• sexual or psychological abuse
• forced marriage
• being held against your will or taken somewhere you don’t want to go
If staff believe that a student is at risk from honour based violence the DSL will follow the usual safeguarding referral process, however, if it is clear that a crime has been committed or the student is at immediate risk the police will be contacted in the first place. It is important that, if honour based violence is known or suspected, communities and family members are NOT spoken to prior to referral to the police or social care as this could increase risk to the young person.
Teenage Relationship Abuse
Research has shown that some young people do not understand abusive behaviours such as controlling behaviours, which can escalate to physical abuse, (e.g. checking someone’s phone, telling them what to wear, who they can/can’t see or speak to) and that this abuse has a higher prevalence within teenage relationships. Research also raises concerns that some young people do not understand what consent means within their relationships.
This can lead to these abusive behaviours feeling ‘normal’ and therefore being left unchallenged, as they were not recognised as being abusive. In response to this Call of the Wild will provide guidance to help prevent young people from becoming victims and perpetrators of abusive relationships by encouraging them to rethink their views of violence, abuse and controlling behaviours, and understand what consent means within their relationships.
The Toxic Trio
The term ‘Toxic Trio’ has been used to describe the issues of domestic violence, mental ill-health and substance misuse which have been identified as common features of families where harm to women and young people has occurred.
These issues are viewed as indicators of increased risk of harm to young people. An analysis of Serious Cases Reviews undertaken by Ofsted in 2011, found that two or more of the issues were present in nearly 75% of these cases.
Domestic abuse is any incident or pattern of incidents of controlling, coercive or threatening behaviour, violence or abuse between those aged 16 or over who are or have been intimate partners or family members, regardless of gender or sexuality. This can encompass, but is not limited to, the following types of abuse:
• Psychological • Physical
• Financial • Emotional
Controlling behaviour is a range of acts designed to make a person subordinate and/or dependent by isolating them from sources of support, exploiting their resources and capacities for personal gain, depriving them of the means needed for independence, resistance and escape and regulating their everyday behaviour.
Coercive behaviour is an act or a pattern of acts of assault, threats, humiliation and intimidation or other abuse that is used to harm, punish, or frighten their victim.
Research indicates that living within a home where domestic abuse takes place is harmful to young people and can have a serious impact on their behaviour, wellbeing and understanding of what a normal relationship is.
Young people witnessing domestic abuse is recognised as ‘significant harm’ in law. These young people may become aggressive; display anti-social behaviours; suffer from depression or anxiety; or fail to reach their educational potential.
Indicators that a young person is living within a relationship with domestic abuse include:
• sudden behaviour changes
• problems sleeping
• eating disorders
• wets the bed
• soils clothes
• takes risks
• misses College
• changes in eating habits
• obsessive behaviour
• thoughts about suicide
These behaviours themselves do not indicate that a young person is living with domestic abuse, but should be considered as indicators that this may be the case.
If staff believe that a young person is living with domestic abuse, this will be reported to the designated safeguarding lead for referral to be considered to children’s social care
Parental mental ill health
The term “mental ill health” is used to cover a wide range of conditions, from eating disorders, mild depression and anxiety to psychotic illnesses such as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Parental mental illness does not necessarily have an adverse impact on a young person’s developmental but it is essential to assess its implications for each young person in the family. It is essential that the diagnosis of a parent/carer’s mental health is not seen as defining the level of risk. Similarly, the absence of a diagnosis does not equate to there being little or no risk.
For young people the impact of parental mental ill health can include:
• Parent / carer’s needs or illnesses taking precedence over the young person’s needs
• Own physical and emotional needs neglected
• Acting as a young carer for a parent or a sibling
• Having restricted social and recreational activities
• Finding it difficult to concentrate- impacting on educational achievement
• Missing College regularly as (s)he is being kept home as a companion for a parent / carer
• Adopting paranoid or suspicious behaviour, as they believe their parent’s delusions.
• Witnessing self-harming behaviour and suicide attempts (including attempts that involve the young person)
• Obsessional compulsive behaviours involving the young person
If staff become aware of any of the above indicators, or others that suggest a young person is suffering due to parental mental ill health, the information will be shared with the DSL to consider a referral to children’s social care.
Parental Substance misuse
Substance misuse applies to the misuse of alcohol as well as ‘problem drug use’, defined by the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs as drug use which has: ‘serious negative consequences of a physical, psychological, social and interpersonal, financial or legal nature for users and those around them.
Parental substance misuse of drugs or alcohol becomes relevant to child protection when substance misuse and personal circumstances indicate that their parenting capacity is likely to be seriously impaired or that undue caring responsibilities are likely to be falling on a young person in the family.
For young people the impact of parental substance misuse can include:
• Inadequate food, heat and clothing for young people (family finances used to fund adult’s dependency)
• Lack of engagement or interest from parents in their development, education or wellbeing
• Behavioural difficulties- inappropriate display of sexual and/or aggressive behaviour
• Bullying (including due to poor physical appearance)
• Isolation – finding it hard to socialise, make friends or invite them home
• Tiredness or lack of concentration
• Young person talking of or bringing into College drugs or related paraphernalia
• Injuries /accidents (due to inadequate adult supervision)
• Taking on a caring role
• Continued poor academic performance including difficulties completing homework on time
• Poor attendance or late arrival
These behaviours themselves do not indicate that a young person’s parent is misusing substances, but should be considered as indicators that this may be the case.
If staff believe that a young person is living with parental substance misuse, this will be reported to the designated safeguarding lead for referral to be considered for children’s social care.
Missing, Exploited and Trafficked Young people (MET)
The acronym MET is used to identify all young people who are missing; believed to be at risk of or being sexually exploited; or who are at risk of or are being trafficked. Given the close links between all of these issues, there has been a considered response to join all three issues so that crossover of risk is not missed.
Young People Missing from Education
Patterns of young people missing education can be an indicator of either abuse or safeguarding risks. A relatively short length of time a young person is missing does not reduce risk of harm to that young person, and all absence or non-attendance should be considered with other known factors or concerns.
DSLs and staff should consider:
Missing lessons: Are there patterns in the lessons that are being missed? Is this more than avoidance of a subject or a teacher? Does the young person remain on Call of the Wild site or are they absent from the site?
• Is the young person being sexually exploited during this time?
• Are they late because of a caring responsibility?
• Have they been directly or indirectly affected by substance misuse?
• Are other students routinely missing the same lessons, and does this raise other risks or concerns?
• Is the lesson being missed one that would cause bruising or injuries to become visible?
Single missing days: Is there a pattern in the day missed? Is it before or after the weekend suggesting the young person is away from the area? Are there specific lessons or members of staff on these days? Is the parent informing Call of the Wild of the absence on the day? Are missing days reported back to parents to confirm their awareness?
• Is the young person being sexually exploited during this day?
• Do the parents appear to be aware?
• Are the student’s peers making comments or suggestions as to where the student is? Continuous missing days: Has Call of the Wild been able to make contact with the parent? Is medical evidence being provided?
• Did we have any concerns about radicalisation, FGM, forced marriage, honour based violence, sexual exploitation?
• Have we had any concerns about physical or sexual abuse?
Call of the Wild will view absence as both a safeguarding issue and an educational outcomes issue. Call of the Wild may take steps that could result in specific actions to improve attendance, or a referral to children’s social care, or both.
Young people Missing from Home or Care
Young people who run away from home or from care, may provide a behavioural indication that they are either unhappy or do not feel safe in the place that they are living. Research shows that young people may often run away from conflict or problems at home or College, neglect or abuse, or because young people are being groomed by predatory individuals who seek to exploit them. Many run away on numerous occasions.
The association of chief police officers has provided the following definitions and guidance:
“Missing person is: ‘Anyone whose whereabouts cannot be established and where the circumstances are out of character or the context suggests the person may be the subject of crime or at risk of harm to themselves or another.’
An absent person is: ‘A person not at a place where they are expected or required to be.’ All cases classified as ‘missing’ by the police will receive an active police response – such as deployment of police officers to locate a young person. Cases where the young person was classified as ‘absent’ will be recorded by the police and risk assessed regularly but no active response will be deployed.
The absent case will be resolved when a young person returns or new information comes to light suggesting that he/she is at risk. In the latter instance, the case is upgraded to ‘missing’.
Within any case of young people who are missing both push and pull factors will need to be considered.
Push factors include:
• Conflict with parents/carers
• Feeling powerless
• Being bullied/abused
• Being unhappy/not being listened to
• The Toxic Trio
Pull factors include:
• Wanting to be with family/friends
• Drugs, money and any exchangeable item
• Peer pressure
• For those who have been trafficked into the United Kingdom as unaccompanied asylum seeking young people there will be pressure to make contact with their trafficker
As a Training Provider we will inform all parents of young people who are absent (unless the parent has informed us). If the parent is also unaware of the location of their child, and the definition of missing is met, we will either support the parent to/directly contact the police to inform them.
Child Sexual Exploitation (CSE)
Sexual exploitation of young people is not limited by the age of consent and can occur up until the age of 18. CSE involves young people being in situations, contexts or relationships where they (or a third person) receive ‘something’ as a result of them performing sexual activities. The something can include food, accommodation, drugs, alcohol, cigarettes, affection, gifts, or money.
Child sexual exploitation can happen via technology without the young person’s being aware; for example, being persuaded to post sexual images on the Internet/mobile phones without immediate payment or gain.
In all cases, those exploiting the young person have power over them by virtue of their age, gender, intellect, physical strength and/or economic or other resources. Violence, coercion and intimidation are common, involvement in exploitative relationships being characterised in the main by the young person’s limited availability of choice resulting from their social/economic and/or emotional vulnerability.
Indicators a young person may be at risk of CSE include:
• going missing for periods of time or regularly coming home late;
• regularly missing attendance sessions;
• appearing with unexplained gifts or new possessions;
• associating with other young people involved in exploitation;
• having older boyfriends or girlfriends;
• suffering from sexually transmitted infections;
• mood swings or changes in emotional wellbeing;
• drug and alcohol misuse; and
• displaying inappropriate sexualised behaviour.
CSE can happen to a young person of any age, gender, ability or social status. Often the victim of CSE is not aware that they are being exploited and do not see themselves as a victim.
As a Training Provider we inform all staff of the signs and indicators of sexual exploitation. We use the sexual exploitation risk assessment form (SERAF) and associated guidance to identify students who are at risk and the DSL will share this information as appropriate with children’s social care. We recognise that we may have information or intelligence that could be used to both protect young people and prevent risk.
Trafficked Young people
Human trafficking is defined by the UNHCR in respect of young people as a process that is a combination of:
• Movement (including within the UK);
• For the purpose of exploitation
Any young person transported for exploitative reasons is considered to be a trafficking victim.
There is significant evidence that young people (both of UK and other citizenship) are being trafficked internally within the UK and this is regarded as a more common form of trafficking in the UK. There are a number of indicators which suggest that a young person may have been trafficked into the UK, and may still be controlled by the traffickers or receiving adults. These are:
• Shows signs of physical or sexual abuse, and/or has contracted a sexually transmitted infection or has an unwanted pregnancy;
• Has a history with missing details and unexplained moves;
• Is required to earn a minimum amount of money every day;
• Works in various locations;
• Has limited freedom of movement;
• Appears to be missing for periods;
• Is known to beg for money;
• Is being cared for by adult/s who are not their parents and the quality of the relationship between the young person and their adult carers is not good;
• Is one among a number of unrelated young people found at one address;
• Has not been registered with or attended a GP practice;
• Is excessively afraid of being deported.
For those young people who are internally trafficked within the UK indicators include:
• Physical symptoms (bruising indicating either physical or sexual assault);
• Prevalence of a sexually transmitted infection or unwanted pregnancy;
• Reports from reliable sources suggesting the likelihood of involvement in sexual exploitation / the young person has been seen in places known to be used for sexual exploitation;
• Evidence of drug, alcohol or substance misuse;
• Being in the community in clothing unusual for a young person i.e. inappropriate or age, or borrowing clothing from older people
• Relationship with a significantly older partner;
• Accounts of social activities, expensive clothes, mobile phones or other possessions with no plausible explanation of the source of necessary funding;
• Persistently missing, staying out overnight or returning late with no plausible explanation;
• Returning after having been missing, looking well cared for despite having not been at home;
• Having keys to premises other than those known about;
• Low self-image, low self-esteem, self-harming behaviour including cutting, overdosing, eating disorder, promiscuity;
• Truancy / disengagement with education;
• Entering or leaving vehicles driven by unknown adults;
• Going missing and being found in areas where the young person has no known links; and/or
• Possible inappropriate use of the Internet and forming on-line relationships, particularly with adults.
These behaviours themselves do not indicate that a young person is being trafficked, but should be considered as indicators that this may be the case.
If staff believe that a young person is being trafficked, this will be reported to the designated safeguarding lead for referral to be considered to children’s social care.
Technological hardware and software is developing continuously with an increase in the functionality of devices. The majority of young people use online tools to communicate with others locally, nationally and internationally. Access to the Internet and other tools that technology provides is an invaluable way of finding, sharing and communicating information. While technology itself is not harmful, it can be used by others to make young people vulnerable and to abuse them.
Online Safety & Social media
With the current speed of on-line change, some young people have only a limited understanding of online risks and issues. Some may underestimate the effects of potentially harmful and inappropriate material on the Internet and may be unsure about how to respond. Some of the risks could be:
• unwanted contact
• online bullying including sexting
• digital footprint
Call of the Wild will therefore seek to provide information and awareness to students through:
• Publicising the ‘Student use of College Computers, e-Mail and Internet Policy’
• Periodical checking of sites visited by Apprentices whilst on our site to check content is suitable .
• Curriculum activities involving raising awareness around staying safe online
• Information included on College intranet
• Building awareness around information that is held on relevant web sites and or
Central to Call of the Wild’s anti-bullying policy is the principle that ‘bullying is always unacceptable’ and that ‘all students have a right not to be bullied’. Call of the Wild also recognises that it must take note of bullying perpetrated outside College, which affects students when they are at College and so will respond to concerns about cyber-bullying carried out by students when they are away from the site. Cyber-bullying is defined as “an aggressive, intentional act carried out by a group or individual using electronic forms of contact repeatedly over time against a victim who cannot easily defend himself/herself.”
By cyber-bullying, we mean bullying by electronic media:
• Bullying by texts or messages or calls on mobile phones
• The use of mobile phone cameras to cause distress, fear or humiliation
• Posting threatening, abusive, defamatory or humiliating material on websites, to include blogs, personal websites, social networking sites
• Hijacking/cloning e-mail accounts
• Making threatening, abusive, defamatory or humiliating remarks in online forums
Cyber-bullying may be at a level where it is criminal in character. It is unlawful to disseminate defamatory information in any media including Internet sites. Section 127 of the Communications Act 2003 makes it an offence to send, by public means of a public electronic communications network, a message or other matter that is grossly offensive or one of an indecent, obscene or menacing character. The Protection from Harassment Act 1997 makes it an offence to knowingly pursue any course of conduct amounting to harassment.
If Call of the Wild becomes aware of incidents of cyberbullying, we will consider each case individually, including whether any criminal act may have been committed. Call of the Wild will pass on information to the police if it feels that it is appropriate or are required to do so.
‘Sexting’ often refers to the sharing of naked pictures or video through mobile phones and the Internet. It also includes underwear shots, sexual poses and explicit text messaging. While sexting often takes place in a consensual relationship between two young people, the use of Sexted images in revenge following a relationship breakdown is becoming more commonplace. Sexting can also be used as a form of sexual exploitation and take place between strangers.
Call of the Wild will use appropriate educational materials with students to raise awareness, to promote safety and deal with pressure.
Online reputation is the opinion others get of a person when they encounter them online. It is formed by posts, photos that have been uploaded and comments made by others on people’s profiles. It is important that young people and staff are aware that anything that is posted could influence their future professional reputation. The majority of organizations and work establishments now check digital footprint before considering applications for positions or places on courses.
Online grooming is the process by which one person with an inappropriate sexual interest in young people will approach a child online, with the intention of developing a relationship with that young person, to be able to meet them in person and intentionally cause harm.
Call of the Wild will build awareness amongst young people to understand:
• the processes and implications of online grooming
• how to protect privacy and reduce the opportunities for grooming
https://www.thinkuknow.co.uk/Teachers/Resources/ http://www.childnet.com/resources/online-reputation-checklist http://www.saferinternet.org.uk/search-results?keywords=online%20reputation http://www.saferinternet.org.uk/search-results?keywords=grooming http://www.childnet.com/search-results/?keywords=grooming
Part 2 – Safeguarding issues relating to individual student needs
Students with medical conditions
Call of the Wild will seek to ensure that sufficient staff are trained to support any student with a medical condition. All relevant staff will be made aware of the condition to support the young person and be aware of medical needs and risks to the young person. Specialist advice may be sought by Call of the Wild Health Advisor and an individual healthcare plan may be put in place to support the young person and their medical needs.
The provision of intimate care is currently rare in Call of the Wild context. If intimate care were to be required, guidelines for good practice are provided in Appendix 1 (adapted from the Chailey Heritage centre)
Fabricated or induced illness
There are three main ways that a parent / carer could fabricate or induce illness in a young person. These are not mutually exclusive and include:
• fabrication of signs and symptoms. This may include fabrication of past medical history;
• fabrication of signs and symptoms and falsification of hospital charts and records, and specimens of bodily fluids. This may also include falsification of letters and documents;
• induction of illness by a variety of means.
If Call of the Wild is concerned that a young person may be suffering from fabricated or induced illness we will follow the established procedures of the Local Safeguarding Children Board.
Teachers and tutors often get to know young people well and are, therefore, well placed to identify changes in behaviour that might indicate an emerging problem with the mental health and emotional wellbeing of students.
The balance between the risk and protective factors are most likely to be disrupted when difficult events happen in students’ lives. These include:
• loss or separation – resulting from death, parental separation, divorce, hospitalisation, loss of friendships, family conflict or breakdown that results in the young person having to live elsewhere, being taken into care or adopted;
• life changes – such as the birth of a sibling, moving house or changing Colleges or during other transitions
• traumatic events such as abuse, domestic violence, bullying, violence, accidents, injuries or natural disaster.
When concerns are identified, our staff will provide opportunities for the young person to talk or receive support within the Call of the Wild environment. Parents will be informed of the concerns and a shared way to support the young person will be discussed.
Where the needs require additional professional support referrals will be made to the appropriate team or service with the parent’s agreement (or young person’s if they are competent, as established by the Fraser guidelines).
Part 3 – Other safeguarding issues impacting students
Prejudice based abuse
Prejudice based abuse or hate crime is any offence which is perceived by the victim or any other person to be motivated by a hostility or prejudice based on a person’s real or perceived:
• Gender identity
• Sexual orientation
Although this sort of crime is collectively known as ‘Hate Crime’ the offender doesn’t have to go as far as being motivated by ‘hate’, they only have to exhibit ‘hostility’.
This can be evidenced by:
• threatened or actual physical assault
• derogatory name calling, insults, for example racist jokes or homophobic language
hate graffiti (e.g. on furniture, walls or books)
provocative behaviour e.g. wearing of badges or symbols belonging to known right wing, or extremist organisations
distributing literature that may be offensive in relation to a protected characteristic
inciting hatred or bullying against students who share a protected characteristic
prejudiced or hostile comments in the course of discussions within lessons teasing in relation to any protected characteristic e.g. sexuality, language, religion or cultural background
refusal to co-operate with others because of their protected characteristic, whether real or perceived
expressions of prejudice calculated to offend or influence the behaviour of others
attempts to recruit other students to organisations and groups that sanction violence, terrorism or hatred.
we will respond by:
clearly identifying any prejudice based incidents and hate crimes and monitoring the frequency and nature of them within Call of the Wild
• taking preventative action to reduce the likelihood of such incidents occurring
• recognising the wider implications of such incidents for Call of the Wild and local community
The number of known cases of child abuse linked to accusations of “possession” or “witchcraft” is small, but young people involved can suffer damage to their physical and mental health, their capacity to learn, their ability to form relationships and to their self- esteem. Such abuse generally occurs when a carer views a young person as being “different”, attributes this difference to the young person being “possessed” or involved in “witchcraft” and attempts to exorcise him or her.
A young person could be viewed as “different” for a variety of reasons such as, disobedience; independence; bed-wetting; nightmares; illness; or disability. There is often a weak bond of attachment between the carer and the young person. There are various social reasons that make a young person more vulnerable to an accusation of “possession” or “witchcraft”. These include family stress and/or a change in the family structure. The attempt to “exorcise” may involve severe beating, burning, starvation, cutting or stabbing and isolation, and usually occurs in the household where the young person lives.
If Call of the Wild become aware of a young person who is being abused in this context, the DSL will follow the normal referral route into children’s social care.
Gangs and Youth Violence
The vast majority of young people will not be affected by serious violence or gangs. However, where these problems do occur, even at low levels there will almost certainly be a significant impact. As a Training Provider we have a duty and a responsibility to protect our students. It is also well established that success in learning is one of the most powerful indicators in the prevention of youth crime. Dealing with violence also helps attainment.
While students generally see educational establishments as safe places, even low levels of youth violence can have a disproportionate impact on any education. Crucial preventive work can be done within College to prevent negative behaviour from escalating and becoming entrenched.
As a Training Provider we will:
challenge aggressive behaviour in ways that prevent the recurrence of such behaviour; understand risks for specific groups, including those that are gender-based, and target interventions; safeguard, and specifically organise child protection, when needed; make referrals to appropriate external agencies; cooperate with local partners in the prevention of anti-social behaviour or crime.
Private fostering is an arrangement by a parent for their child (under 16 or 18 if disabled) to be cared for by another adult who is not closely related and is not a legal guardian with parental responsibility for 28 days or more. It is not private fostering if the carer is a close relative to the young person such as grandparent, brother, sister, uncle or aunt. Due to the ages of the young people at Call of the Wild, private fostering issues are rarely found.
The Law requires that the carers and parents must notify the children’s services department of any private fostering arrangement.
If Call of the Wild becomes aware that a student is being privately fostered we will inform the children’s services department and inform both the parents and carers that we have done so.
Part 4 –Safeguarding processes
Call of the Wild operates a separate safer recruitment process as part of the Recruitment Procedure and the Disclosure and Barring Service Policy and Procedure. The process checks identity, criminal record (enhanced DBS), mental and physical capacity, right to work in the U.K., professional qualification and seeks confirmation of the applicant’s experience and history through references.
Call of the Wild provides all new staff with training to enable them to both fulfil their role and also to understand the child protection policy, the safeguarding policy, the staff code of conduct, and part one of Keeping Children Safe in Education.
Health and Safety
Call of the Wild has an established Health & Safety Policy and accompanying procedures
Call of the Wild aims to provide a secure site within which young people feel safe. By its nature Call of the Wild is a diverse environment which brings together a broad range of individuals engaged in education and training. Therefore, a number of strategies are used to enhance site security. These are:
• All persons on Call of the Wild site must wear and display the relevant identity card
• Identity cards are displayed by the use of coloured lanyards, which identify whether an individual is a student, a member of staff, a contractor or a visitor
• Frequent compliance checks are carried out to ensure that persons on site are wearing the correct identity card and lanyard
• Visitors are required to enter at the reception and must sign in.
Call of the Wild has a separate procedure detailing the arrangements for providing First Aid.
Physical Intervention (use of reasonable force)
The use of physical intervention is rarely required within the context of Call of the Wild. Call of the Wild utilises the non-statutory DfE advice contained in ‘Use of reasonable force: Advice for headteachers, staff and governing bodies’ in order to provide guidance for staff.
Photographs and images
As a Training Provider we will seek consent from the student, and their parent if under 18, before taking and publishing photographs or videos that contain images that are sufficiently detailed to identify the individual in our publications, printed media or on electronic publications. We will not seek consent for photos where you would not be able to identify the individual.
Photographs and videos will be taken by members of staff and professional photographers/videographers. They will be deleted from memory cards/computers after being processed, and securely stored on Call of the Wild network thereafter.
Disqualification under the childcare act
Within Call of the Wild, the provisions of the Childcare Act 2006 regarding suitability to work with young children apply only to staff employed within, or responsible for the management of, Call of the Wild nursery. The Childcare Act was put in place to prevent adults who have been cautioned or convicted of a number of specific offences from working within childcare.
The legislation also applies to any staff directly concerned in the management of later years’ provision. In 2009 additional regulations were made to include those living in the same household as another person who is (or would be) disqualified under the Act.
As a Training Provider we require all staff who may be impacted by this piece of legislation to complete a self declaration form and to inform the Directors immediately if they become aware of any changes to their circumstances that would require us to be aware.
If a member of staff is impacted by the disqualification by association provisions we will ask them to apply for a waiver from Ofsted and put in place appropriate risk management plans while the waiver is being processed. If a waiver is not granted we will seek advice from the Local Authority Designated Officer (LADO) as to how risk is most effectively managed.
Appendix 1: Intimate care
Guidelines for good practice
1. Treat every young person with dignity and respect and ensure privacy appropriate to the young person’s age and the situation. Privacy is an important issue. Much intimate care is carried out by one staff member alone with one young person. The four Local Safeguarding Children Boards (4LSCBs) believe this practice should be actively supported unless the task requires two people. Having people working alone does increase the opportunity for possible abuse. However, this is balanced by the loss of privacy and lack of trust implied if two people have to be present – quite apart from the practical difficulties. It should also be noted that the presence of two people does not guarantee the safety of the young person – organised abuse by several perpetrators can, and does, take place. Therefore, staff should be supported in carrying out the intimate care of young people alone unless the task requires the presence of two people. The 4LSCBs recognise that there are partner agencies that recommend two carers in specific circumstances. Where possible, the member of staff carrying out intimate care should be someone chosen by the young person. For older young people it is preferable if the member of staff is the same gender as the young person. However, this is not always possible in practice. Agencies should consider the implications of using a single named member of staff for intimate care or a rota system in terms of risks of abuse.
2. Involve the young person as far as possible in his or her own intimate care. Try to avoid doing things for a young person that s/he can do alone, and if a young person is able to help ensure that s/he is given the chance to do so. This is as important for tasks such as removing underclothes as it is for washing the private parts of a young person’s body. Support young people in doing all that they can themselves. If a young person is fully dependent on you, talk with her or him about what you are doing and give choices where possible.
3. Be responsive to a young person’s reactions. It is appropriate to “check” your practice by asking the young person – particularly a young person you have not previously cared for – “Is it OK to do it this way?”; “Can you wash there?; “How does your parent do that?”. If a young person expresses dislike of a certain person carrying out her or his intimate care, try and find out why. Conversely, if a young person has a “grudge” against you or dislikes you for some reason, ensure your line manager is aware of this.
4. Make sure practice in intimate care is as consistent as possible. Line managers have a responsibility for ensuring their staff have a consistent approach. This does not mean that everyone has to do things in an identical fashion, but it is important that approaches to intimate care are not markedly different between individuals. For example, do you use a flannel to wash a young person’s private parts rather than bare hands? Do you pull back a young person’s foreskin as part of daily washing? Is care during menstruation consistent across different staff?
5. Never do something unless you know how to do it. If you are not sure how to do something, ask. If you need to be shown more than once, ask again. Certain intimate care or treatment procedures, such as rectal examinations, must only be carried out by nursing or medical staff. Other procedures, such as giving rectal valium, suppositories or intermittent catheterisation, must only be carried out by staff who have been formally trained and assessed as competent.
6. If you are concerned that during the intimate care of a young person:
• You accidentally hurt the young person;
• The young person seems sore or unusually tender in the genital area;
• The young person appears to be sexually aroused by your actions;
• The young person misunderstands or misinterprets something;
• The young person has a very emotional reaction without apparent cause
(sudden crying or shouting).
Report any such incident as soon as possible to another person working with you and make a brief written note of it. This is for two reasons: first, because some of these could be cause for concern, and secondly, because the young person or another adult might possibly misconstrue something you have done.
7. Additionally, if you are a member of staff who has noticed that a young person’s demeanour has changed directly following intimate care, e.g. sudden distress or withdrawal, this should be noted in writing and discussed with your designated person for child protection.
8. Encourage the young person to have a positive image of her or his own body. Confident, assertive young people who feel their body belongs to them are less vulnerable to abuse. As well as the basics like privacy, the approach you take to a young person’s intimate care can convey lots of messages about what her or his body is “worth”. Your attitude to the young person’s intimate care is important. As far as appropriate and keeping in mind the young person’s age, routine care of a young person should be enjoyable, relaxed and fun.
Intimate care is to some extent individually defined, and varies according to personal experience, cultural expectations and gender. The 4LSCBs recognise that young people who experience intimate care may be more vulnerable to abuse:-
• Young people with additional needs are sometimes taught to do as they are told to a greater degree than other young people. This can continue into later years. Young people who are dependent or over-protected may have fewer opportunities to take decisions for themselves and may have limited choices. The young person may come to believe they are passive and powerless
• Increased numbers of adult carers may increase the vulnerability of the young person, either by increasing the possibility of a carer harming them, or by adding to their sense of lack of attachment to a trusted adult
• Physical dependency in basic core needs, for example toileting, bathing, dressing, may increase the accessibility and opportunity for some carers to exploit being alone with and justify touching the young person inappropriately
• Repeated “invasion” of body space for physical or medical care may result in the young person feeling ownership of their bodies has been taken from them
• Young people with additional needs can be isolated from knowledge and information about alternative sources of care and residence. This means, for example, that a young person who is physically dependent on daily care may be more reluctant to disclose abuse, since they fear the loss of these needs being met. Their fear may also include who might replace their abusive carer
Other relevant info:
Director of Social Services,
Neath Port Talbot County Borough Council,
Appendix 2 – Contact Details for reporting of any concerns or allegations
Director: Mark Soanes – 01639 700388 | Safeguarding Officer: James Martin – 01639 700388